All About Refutation | Aaqib Ibn Amin حفظه الله

Imam Nawawi rahimahullah has mentioned a topic in Riyadus saliheen “باب توقير العلماء” “reverence for ulema”.

One is accustomed to have reverence towards the ulema, learn from them and give them respect.

Allah ta’aala says;

قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِى ٱلَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ۗ إِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ أُو۟لُوا۟ ٱلْأَلْبَٰبِ  (الزمر٩)

Say, “Are those who know equal to those who do not know?” Only they will remember [who are] people of understanding. (surah Az-zumr 9)

Allah says;

إِنَّمَا يَخۡشَى ٱللَّهَ مِنۡ عِبَادِهِ ٱلۡعُلَمَـٰٓؤُاْۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ غَفُورٌ (فاطر ٢٨)

Only those fear Allāh, from among His servants, who have knowledge. Indeed, Allāh is Exalted in Might and Forgiving. (surah Faatir 28)

Allah says;

أَوَمَن كَانَ مَيۡتٗا فَأَحۡيَيۡنَٰهُ وَجَعَلۡنَا لَهُۥ نُورٗا يَمۡشِي بِهِۦ فِي ٱلنَّاسِ كَمَن مَّثَلُهُۥ فِي ٱلظُّلُمَٰتِ لَيۡسَ بِخَارِجٖ مِّنۡهَاۚ كَذَٰلِكَ زُيِّنَ لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ (الأنعام ١٢٢)

And is one who was dead and We gave him life and made for him light by which to walk among the people like one who is in darkness, never to emerge therefrom? Thus it has been made pleasing to the disbelievers that which they were doing. (surah An’aam 122).

Based on these verses it is pellucid that the scholars have high status as they are the ones who have with them the legacy of the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم. They are indeed most respectable ones under whose guidance one should learn.

The thing for which I am writing this article is that if any scholar is countered by any other scholar, does it mean his authenticity has come to an end or there is still some room to learn from him. The basic reason for writing all this is that some people mostly on social websites are trying to delude and deviate youth by creating misconceptions about the scholars of the ummah. Their main claim is, “if this and that scholar is refuted then why don’t you look at your scholars who are also refuted……”

It is worth to mention here that;

The refutation (الجرح) is divided into two types: general (مطلق) that is, refutation in all aspects and specific (مقيد) that’s, refutation in a specific matter.

Those scholars or people of innovation, those whose aqeedah is unsound and those who talk bad about the Sahabah, They undoubtedly fall in the category of general refutation. To prove this I quote the saying of imam Abu zur’ah Al-Razi rahimahullah;

إذا رأيت الرجل ينتقص أحدًا من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فاعلم أنه زنديق، وذلك أن الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم حق والقرآن الكريم حق، وما جاء به حق، وإنما أدى إلينا ذلك كله الصحابة،وهؤلاء الزنادقة يريدون أن يجرحوا شهودنا؛ ليبطلوا الكتاب والسنة فالجرح بهم أولى. “الكفاية في علم الرواية” (ص 49)

When you see a man denouncing any of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم, then know that he is a heretic, and that is because the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم is true and the Qur’an is true, and what He brought is true. These heretics, intend to to invalidate the Book and the Sunnah, so they are the first deservants of refutation.

Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal rahimahullah has said;

 إذا رأيت أحداً يذكر أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بسوء فاتهمه على الإسلام.البداية والنهاية” (8/139) .

If you see someone badly mentioning the Companions of the Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم, then doubt his deen.

The scholars of Islam are unanimously agreed that the Companions are just, and it is not permissible for a Muslim to criticize them.

Shaykh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said:

“The one who refutes the people of innovation is a Mujaahid. This is such that Yahyaa Ibn Yahyaa used to say, ‘Defending the Sunnah is more virtuous than fighting in Jihaad.‘ ” [Naqd Al-Mantiq, p.12]

Shaykh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah also said:

“So whoever is a Mujaahid in the way of Allaah, by way of his tongue, then it is through commanding good and forbidding evil, explaining the religion, conveying the commands, prohibitions and good that is found in the Quraan and Sunnah, clarifying the views that contradict that, and refuting those who oppose the Quraan and the Sunnah. Or it could be by way of the hand, such as by fighting against the disbelievers.

So if he is harmed during his Jihaad by the hand or tongue of another person, then his reward for it is upon Allah. And he should not seek to return the injustice that was caused to him by the oppressor. Rather if this oppressor repents and accepts the truth due to which Jihad was made against him (in the first place), then his repentance serves to wipe away what (sin) there was in the past.

“Say to those who have disbelieved, if they cease (from disbelief), their past (sins) will be forgiven. But if they return (to disbelief), then the examples of those (punished) before them have already preceded (as a warning).” [8:38]

And if he doesn’t repent and instead continues to oppose the Quraan and the Sunnah, then he is an opponent of Allah and His Messengers. The believers have a right that is subordinate to the right of Allaah. So when this person gets punished, it is due to the right of Allah, so that Allah’s Word can be the highest and so that all of the religion (worship  can be for Allaah – it is not just done for the sake of retribution.” [Al-Ihtijaaj Bil-Qadar, p.50]

we must know that the scholars are not infallible and there can be some issues in which they might be differed over by other scholars but this mistake in scholars isn’t like innovation, problems in aqeedah or dishonoring the suhabas. This can be difference of opinion, or being harsh on people, etc.
But saying that my scholar cannot make errors and if anyone refutes him is himself an innovator is not a correct statement. We should weigh every statement on the criterion of Quran and Sunnah.

So to conclude one shouldn’t keep the innovators and ahlus Sunnah in the same mound, and it is mandatory to know the levels of jarah. One should know that refuting people of innovation and their scholars is the criterion which differentiates between the truth and the falsehood.


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