Abu Ja`far Abd al-Khaleq bin Issa al-Hashimi (411 AH – 470 AH), the Sheikh of Hanbilah whose lineage ends to Abbas bin Abd al-Muttalib رضي الله عنه, the uncle of the Prophet عليه سلام , he was one of the great student of Qadhi Abu Yaa’la رحمه الله .
He was a scholar who had vast grip on the sciences of Qur’an and its rulings ,he was known for his severe opposition towards the people of Biddah and Dhakal .Sharief Abu Ja`far Hashimi was imprisoned for due to the fitna of Ibn’ al_Qushayri. He frequently fasted in prison until he fell ill which resulted in his death . His funeral was attended by thousands of people both the Elites and commoners of Baghdad after which he was buried next to the grave of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal رحمه الله in Bab al_Harb graveyard .
Name, Kuniyah and Lineage:
He is Abd al-Khaleq bin Abi Musa Issa bin Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Isa bin Ahmad bin Musa bin Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Abdullah bin Maabad Ibn al-Abbas Ibn Abd al-Muttalib al-Hashemi al-Abbasi al-Hanbali al-Baghdadi, this was mentioned by:
1_Abu Bakr al-Ansari رحمه الله ,
2_Abu al-Hussein bin Al-Qadi رحمه الله ,
3_ Ibn Al-Jawzi رحمه الله,
4_Ibn Al-Samani رحمه الله .
He is the nephew of the Sherief Abi Ali Muhammad bin Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Isa bin Ahmed bin Musa.
He was born in the year 411 AH, and studied fiqh under Qadhi Abu Yaa’la , and studied hadith from
1_ Abu Al-Qasim bin Bashran,
2_ Abu Al-Hussein Bin Al-Harrani,
3_ Abu Muhammad Al-Khalal,
4_Abu Ishaq Al-Barmaki,
5_Abu Talib Al-ishaari.
He was the brightest student of Qadhi abu Yaa’la . He was extremely against the Ahl Biddah and was very well versed in Islāmic sciences and knowledge .
When Qadhi Abe Yaa’la was dying, he recommended that Abu Jaafar wash him, so when his soul started departing, he said: Abd al-Khaliq washed me, and he did and did not take anything from there.
Here is the Shaykh’s chain of “Tafaqquh” in the Hanbali Madhhab going back to the founder of the Madhhab:
He took from al-Qadi, Abu Ya’la Muhammad b. al-Husain (al-Farra) رحمه الله; who took from Abu Abdullah al-Hasan b. Hamid al-Baghdadi al-Warraq(رحمه الله); who took from Abu Bakr ‘Abdul ‘Aziz bin. Ja’far bin. Ahmad (Ghulam al-Khallal)رحمه الله; who took from his Shaykh, Abu Bakr Ahmad bin. Muhammad bin. Harun al-Khallal (رحمه الله); who took from Abu Bakr Ahmad bin. Muhammad bin al-Hajjaj al-Marrudhi (رحمه الله)and other students of Al Imam of Ahlus Sunnah, Abu Abdullah Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Hanbal al-Shaybani(رحمه الله تعالى) .
Fitna of Ibn Al-Qushayrii:
The fitna broke out when Abu Nasr ibn al Qushayri returned from his second piligrimage to Mecca in shawal 469 hijri-may 1077 ,a Jew converted to Islām in the majlis of ibn al Qushayri and then was led in the streets on a horse to celebrate his conversion in a big prade organised by ibn al Qushayri’s students . The whole charade was meant to intensify the buzz around ibn al Qushayri’s missionary activity .
This cause uneasyness among the native Arab of Baghdad. The word in the streets was that those acts of conversion were false ,the jew converted due to bribery not of piety . The prade participants who were with ibn al Qushayri’s students( Mostly Persians from Khorasan) decided to attack the Sharief Abu Jaafar who was in the Bab al_Nubi mosque.
However the Arabs (Hanabila) were well prepared , when the suppoters of Ibn al Qushayri ( Khorasani trader’s of Baghdad) arrived at Bab al Nubi mosque ,the Hanabila suprised them by throwing bricks at them . This act signalled the riots – a porter of Bab al Nubi mosque was killed by a brick. The Arabs also killed a tailor in Tuesday market near Nizamiyah .
The followers of ibn al Qushayri took refuge in the Nizamiyah ,from the inside they locked academy ,the symbol of Asharism they called for help of the Obaydhi Isma’ili Caliph of Egypt al_Mustansir . This act of defiance was meant to show that they did not recognised the Hanbali Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad al_Muqtadi .
The mastermind of all this Abu Ishaq Shirazi got deeply aggravated by these events and he wrote letter to Nizam al Mulk . He also preapred himself for a journey to Khorasan to complain to Nizam Al Mulk personally . The Abbasid Caliph was in an inferior position in comparison to the Sultan and Nizam al Mulk ,he got afraid that Abu Ishaq might speak ill of him to Nizam .
The caliph therefore was forced to take action against Ahl Sunnah – he persuade Abu Ishaq not to go to Khorasan . The news however reached Nizam al Mulk , Nizam sent letter to caliph via Fakr Dawla and expressed his anger at the behaviour of Ahl Sunnāh.
The Asharis preachers of Nizamiyah for their part continued to cause trouble . In shawwal 470 -1078 a preacher named al_Iskandarani went to the tuesday market and made a public speech in which he declared takfir on the Ahl Sunnāh . He was stoned with bricks and made a narror escape to the market near the Nizamiyah , therein a group a group of Asharis attempted to rescue him and went to the Tuesday market .
The rescue operation soon erupted into the wild campaign of looting . The people of tuesday market went to counter the looting in the market of Nizamiyah. Since Nizam al Mulks son lived their the situation called for Military action and at least ten people were killed ,again as in the case of the fitna of Ibn al Qushayri
And other incidents, such as, Abul Qāsim al Bakri Magribi who was immoral and certainly not a scholar was appointed by Nizam al Mulk to preach the Ash’ari creed in Nizamiyah university of Baghdad in the year 475 Hijri, which caused further riots in Baghdad. The fitna had several repercussions frist and foremost it exposed the Asharis . The Ahl Sunnāh saw Abu Ishaq Shirazi as the brain behide the events and ibn al Qushayri as his puppet who executed the plan .
Nizam al Mulk was forced to clerify his purpose of establishing the Nizamiyah .
Also, Abu Bakr al Maghribī (d. 476) who was from amongst the Ash’aris missionaries in Baghdad and cause of a lot of tribulation and massive disputes . He used to curse the Hanbalis and made takfir upon them, however after his death the fighting in Baghdad stopped.
From the above we see that fighting broke out amongst them because the Hanbalis did not want to accept their Madhab due to it containing Kalam and Ta`weel.
He was imprisoned after the Fitna of Ibn al Qushayri and put in jail where he kept fast continue which deteriorated his health leading to his death .He passed away on 15 Safar and washed by Sheikh Abu Saeed Al-Bardani رحمه الله, and Sheikh Ibn Fatti رحمه الله as per his will and was buried alongside the tomb of Imam Ahmad .”
ورآه بعضهم في المنام، فقال له: «ما فعل الله بك ؟» قَالَ: «لما وضعت في قبري رأيت قبة من درة بيضاء لها ثلاثة أبواب، وقائل يقول: هذه لك، أدخل من أبي أبوابها شئت.» ورآه آخر في المنام، فقال: «ما فعل الله بك ؟» قَالَ: التقيت بأحمد بن حنبل فقال لي: «يا أبا جعفر، لقد جاهدت في الله حق جهاده، وقد أعطاك الله الرضى۔
قال أبو المظفر السمعاني«كان حسن الكلام في المناظرة
ورعا زاهدا، متقنا، عالما بأحكام القرآن والفرائض.»۔
وقال أبو الحسين بن الفراء: «لزمته خمس سنين، وكان إذا بلغه منكر، عظم عليه جدًا، وكان شديدًا على المبتدعة، لم تزل كلمته عالية عليهم، وأصحابه يقمعونهم، ولا يردهم أحد، وكان عفيفا نزها، درس بمسجده، ثم انتقل إلى الجانب الشرقي يدرس، ثم درس بجامع المهدي، ولما احتضر أبو يعلى أوصاه أن يغسله، وكذا لما احتضر الخليفة القائم أوصى أن يغسله أبو جعفر، ففعل، وما أخذ شيئا مما وصى له به، حتى قيل له: خذ قميص أمير المؤمنين للبركة، فنشفه بفوطة وقال: حصلت البركة. ثم استدعى المقتدي، فبايعه منفردا .. إلى أن قال: وأخذ أبو جعفر في فتنة ابن القشيري وحبس أيامًا، فسرد الصوم، وما أكل لأحد شيئا، ودخلت، فرأيته يقرأ في المصحف، ومرض، فلما ثقل وضج الناس من حبسه، أخرج إلى الحريم، فمات هناك، وكانت جنازته مشهودة، ودفن إلى جانب قبر الإمام أحمد، ولزم الناس قبره مدة حتى قيل: ختم على قبره عشرة ألاف ختمة.»۔
قال ابن النجار الفتوحي:«كان منقطعًا إلى العبادة وخشونة العيش والصلابة في مذهبه، حتى أفضى ذلك إلى مسارعة العوام إلى إيذاء الناس، وإقامة الفتنة، وسُفِكَ الدماء، وسُبَّ العلماء، فحُبس.»۔
قال ابن الجوزي: «كان عالما فقيها، ورعا عبادا، زاهدا، قوالا بالحق، لا يحابي، ولا تأخذه في الله لومة لائم.»۔
قال ابن خيرون:«مقدم أهل زمانه شرفًا، وعلمًا وزهدًا.»۔
قال أبو الوفاء بن عقيل:«كان يفوق الجماعة من أهل مذهبه وغيرهم في علم الفرائض.»۔