Maʿrakah al-Qadisiyah, also called the Conquest of al-Qadisiyya due to the victory of Muslims, took place between the army of Muslims and the Sassanid government from seventh until tenth of Ramadan, 14/635( 15 Muḥaram). Hazrat Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas was the commander-in-chief of Muslim forces and Rostam Farrokhzad was the commander-in-chief of the Sassanid army. Al-Qadisiyya was the place where this battle took place, in Qadisiyah province of Iraq.
Commanders and leaders of Muslims:
1. Hazrat Sa`d ibn Abī Waqqās.
2. Hazrat Khalid bin Arfatah (deputy commander).
3. Hazrat Al-Muthanna ibn Haritha.
4. Hazrat Al-Qa’qa’a ibn Amr at-Tamimi.
5. Hazrat Asim ibn ‘Amr al-Tamimi.
6. Hazrat Abdullah ibn Al-Mu’tim.
7. Hazrat Shurahbil ibn Simt.
8. Hazrat Zuhra ibn al-Hawiyya.
9. Hazrat Jarir ibn Abdullah al-Bajali
10. Hazrat Tulayha.
11. Hazrat Amru bin Ma’adi Yakrib.
رضوان الله تعالى عليهم أجمعين
Territorial changes: Muslim acquire Iraq.
At first, Hazrat Farooq Azam (Umar b. al-Khattab), decided to lead the army of Islam; but,Hazrat Abd al-Rahman b. Awf. opposed it and argued,
“Avoid battle, because if you leave this place the Arabs will attack you from all sides and directions till the unguarded places left behind by you will become more important than those before you. If the Persians see you tomorrow they will say, ‘He is the root (chief) of Arabia. If we do away with him we will be in peace.’ In this way this will heighten their eagerness against you and their keenness to aim at you.”
Hazrat Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas was appointed as the commander-in-chief of Muslim forces.
Hazrat Farooq Azam ordered Sa’d to send messengers to the army of the enemy and invite them, since he considered it an insult and abasement for the army of the enemy. On the other side, Rostam wanted to know about the goal of Arabs and asked them to send him messengers to speak with. So, some persons from the army of Muslims went to Rostam to speak with him.
Historical sources have reported some of their conversations:
Hazrat Al-Mughira b. Shu’ba went to Rostam Farrokhzad. Rostam said, “God glorified our kingdom and chose us the chief of nations and debased people of the earth before us. In our sight, there was no people more insignificant than you… How come you attacked our land? If that is due to hunger, we will help you, so you go back to your own land.”
Hazrat Mughayra said, “We know what you said about your kingdom, wealth and power upon other nations and your great position. Now, I inform you about our present time. We had a bad life; the powerful among us destroyed the weak, we killed our children and worshiped idols. Then, God chose a prophet for us. The Prophet (عليه السلام) invited us to monotheism and following the book of God and we believed and acknowledged him. He (عليه السلام) ordered us to invite people to what God has ordered. If they accept, they will have what we have, and if they refuse, we ask them to pay jiziya and if they refuse to pay that, we fight them. We will treat you the same.”
Hazrat Rib’i b. ‘Amir went to Rostam and said, “God made us responsible to invite others to worship God and abandon worshiping servants and to take them from the hardship of the world to its tranquility and from the oppression of religions to the justice of Islam. So, He made us responsible to invite people to His religion. Whoever accepts us, we will accept him and let him go, but we will fight with those who do not accept, until the promise of God is fulfilled.” They said, “what is God’s promise?” Hazrat Rib’i said, “the paradise is the reward for the one who is killed in the war with non-Muslims and the victory is for the one who remains [after it].”
After about four months passed, the two armies decided to fight. Hazrat Sa’d did not go to the battlefield due to being ill and led the army from a distance and appointed Hazrat Khalid b. ‘Arafta as his deputy in the battlefield. The battle of al-Qadisiyya lasted four days, each of which was called with a name: Armath, Aghwath, ‘Amas and (Laylat al-Harir) al-Qadisiyya. On the fourth day, a great wind was blowing at the Iranian army, Rostam was killed and the Iranian army was defeated.
Many of the companions ( Sahābā) including more than seventy of those who had participated in the battle of Badr, three hundred of those who had participated in the conquest of Mecca and seven hundred of the children of the companions of the Prophet (عليه السلام) participated in the battle of al-Qadisiyya.
Results; The battle of al-Qadisiyya is very important because it was a beginning for conquering Iran by Muslims and the end of one of the greatest sovereignties in Iran in military and political aspects and also a beginning to the end of Majoos dominance.
The battle of al-Qadisiyya ended by the victory of Muslims and the bitter defeat of Iranians.From this battle, the Muslims gained a large amount of spoils, including the famed jewel-encrusted royal standard, called the Derafsh-e-Kāveyān (the ‘flag of Kāveh’). The jewel was cut up and sold in pieces in Medina.The Arab fighters became known as “ahl al-Qādisiyyah’’ and held the highest prestige among later Arabs within Iraq and its that time capital, Kufa.
Once the battle of Qadisiyya was over, Hazrat Sa’d sent a report of the Muslim victory to Hazrat Farooq Azam. The battle shook Sassanian rule in Iraq to its foundations but was not the end of their rule in Iraq. As long as the Sassanids held their capital Ctesiphon( Mada’iin ), there was always the danger that at some suitable moment they would make an attempt to recover what they had lost and drive away the Arabs from Iraq. Hazrat Farooq Azam thus sent instructions to Hazrat Saad that as a sequel to the battle of Qadisiyyah, the Muslims should push forward to capture Mada’iin. The Siege of Mada’iin continued for two months, and the city was finally taken in March 637. Muslim forces conquered the Persian provinces up to al’_ Ahwaz (Khuzistan).The conquest was slowed, however, by a severe drought in Arabia in 638 and the plague in southern Iraq.
The Persian perspective, however, was the polar opposite: one of great embarrassment, humiliation, and scorn. The pride of the imperial Sassanids had been hurt by the conquest of Iraq by the Arabs, and the Sassanids continued the struggle to regain the lost territory. Thus, a major Persian counterattack was launched and repulsed at the Battle of Nahavand, fought in December 641.
After that, a full-scale invasion of the Sassanid Empire was planned by Hazrat Farooq Azam to conquer his archrival entirely. The last Persian emperor was Yazdgerd III, who was killed in 651 during the reign of the Caliph Uthman. His death officially marks the end of the Sassanid empire and his lineage but the Sassania lineage countinued by his brother Sherwah ( all of them converted to Islām later ). The famous Muslim Tribe of Satti in West Punjab are from the Sassania Royal lineage via Sherwah .
Satti >Alam>Tahir> Zāin al Abideen>Feyl>Tawoos( converted to Islām)>Siyawesh>Hormoz>Behram>Ardshehr>Feyroz>Gushtashap>Sherwah>Khusrow Pervez.